Sep 16, 2009 · There are plenty of other descriptive slang terms for this gay male dichotomy as well, some repeatable (“pitchers vs. catchers,” “active vs. passive,” “dominant vs. submissive”) and ...
Gay especially refers to male homosexuality, but may be used in a broader sense to refer to all LGBT people. In the context of sexuality, lesbian refers only to female homosexuality. ... The Sumerian sign for gala was a ligature of the signs for "penis" and "anus".
Gender and sexual identities. The range of acceptable use for these terms depends on the context and speaker. Honderich, Ted ed. Halperin, How to Do the History of Homosexuality. Main article: Homosexual behavior in animals. Sign in. The first phase is that of "knowing oneself", and the realization emerges that one is open to same-sex relations. Many Melanesian societies, however, have become hostile towards same-sex relationships since the introduction of Christianity by European missionaries. In a issue of Sexual and Relationship Therapy , these scientists reported that tops were more likely to be the insertive partner in everything from sex-toy play to verbal abuse to urination play. Main article: Sexual orientation and military service. The community in the country is exposed to additional risk of prejudice, social rejection and violence, with a greater impossibility of obtaining protection even from the police. Sign up for our email newsletter. During the colonial times following the European invasion, homosexuality was prosecuted by the Inquisition, some times leading to death sentences on the charges of sodomy, and the practices became clandestine. Archives of Sexual Behavior. Even if sexual fluidity exists for some women, it does not mean that the majority of women will change sexual orientations as they age — rather, sexuality is stable over time for the majority of people. For example, some use same-sex behavior and not same-sex attraction as the operational definition of homosexuality e. Principles and Practice of Psychiatric Nursing. Archived from the original on 30 October The American Psychologist. A Dictionary of True Etymologies. Retrieved 7 August The terms are seen as problematic by some, however, because they "obscure social dimensions of sexuality; undermine the self-labeling of lesbian, gay, and bisexual people; and do not sufficiently describe variations in sexual behavior". Sloan Tops also may be more likely to transmit HIV to women because of their greater likelihood of being behaviorally bisexual. Elsevier Health Sciences. Help Learn to edit Community portal Recent changes Upload file. Reliable data as to the size of the gay and lesbian population are of value in informing public policy. Homosexuality is illegal in almost all Muslim countries. Sex in the ancient world from A to Z 1st published. Sexual orientations — Medicine, science and sexology. Gender identities Sexual identities Sexual diversities. AIDS Behav. National Institute of Water and Atmospheric Research. Many gay and lesbian people are in committed same-sex relationships. Retrieved 28 March Archived from the original on 29 October Archived from the original on 8 August Men who have sex with men may donate blood; Temporary deferral. Integrated Authority File Germany. Main article: Demographics of sexual orientation. Retrieved 1 October Main article: Gay bullying. The Drummer's Revenge. Get smart. Notwithstanding these regulations taxes on brothels with boys available for homosexual sex continued to be collected until the end of the reign of Anastasius I in The second phase involves one's decision to come out to others, e.
Not exactly, anyway. The ubiquity of homosexual behavior alone makes it fascinating. Several years ago, a team of scientists led by Trevor Hart at the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention in Atlanta studied a group of of gay male participants. That is to say, based on self-reports of their recent sexual histories, those who identify as tops are indeed more likely to act as the insertive partner, bottoms are more likely be the receptive partner, and versatiles occupy an intermediate status in sex behavior. For example, tops also tend to be the more frequent insertive partner during oral intercourse. In a issue of Sexual and Relationship Therapy , these scientists reported that tops were more likely to be the insertive partner in everything from sex-toy play to verbal abuse to urination play. They also manifested higher internalized homophobia —essentially the degree of self-loathing linked to their homosexual desires. Hart and his coauthors speculate that this may be due to their greater sexual sensation seeking, lower erotophobia fear of sex , and greater comfort with a variety of roles and activities. Yet the authors make an excellent—potentially lifesaving—point:. Although self-labels were not associated with unprotected intercourse, tops, who engaged in a greater proportion of insertive anal sex than other groups, were also less likely to identify as gay. Tops may be less likely to be recruited in venues frequented by gay men, and their greater internalized homophobia may result in greater denial of ever engaging in sex with other men. Tops also may be more likely to transmit HIV to women because of their greater likelihood of being behaviorally bisexual. For example, in the article by Moskowitz, Reiger and Roloff, the authors note that prospective gay male couples might want to weigh this issue of sex role preferences seriously before committing to anything longterm. From a sexual point of view, there are obvious logistical problems of two tops or two bottoms being in a monogamous relationship. Another intriguing study was reported in a issue of the Archives of Sexual Behavior by anthropologist Mathew McIntyre. Somewhat curiously, McIntyre discovered a small but statistically significant negative correlation between 2D:4D and sexual self-label. Many questions about gay self-labels and their relation to development, social behavior, genes and neurological substrates remain to be answered—indeed, they remain to be asked. In this column presented by Scientific American Mind magazine, research psychologist Jesse Bering of Queen's University Belfast ponders some of the more obscure aspects of everyday human behavior. Ever wonder why yawning is contagious, why we point with our index fingers instead of our thumbs or whether being breastfed as an infant influences your sexual preferences as an adult? Sign up for the RSS feed or friend Dr. Bering on Facebook and never miss an installment again. The views expressed are those of the author s and are not necessarily those of Scientific American. To learn more about Jesse's work, visit www. Follow Jesse Bering on Twitter. Already a subscriber? Sign in. Thanks for reading Scientific American. Create your free account or Sign in to continue. See Subscription Options. Get Unlimited! Yet the authors make an excellent—potentially lifesaving—point: Although self-labels were not associated with unprotected intercourse, tops, who engaged in a greater proportion of insertive anal sex than other groups, were also less likely to identify as gay. Get smart. Sign up for our email newsletter. Sign Up. Read More Previous. Support science journalism. Knowledge awaits. See Subscription Options Already a subscriber? Create Account See Subscription Options. Continue reading with a Scientific American subscription. Subscribe Now You may cancel at any time.
All countries and territories listed that where annexed or established into reichskommissariat s by Nazi Germany during World War II where restored as independent countries or reincorporated into their previous countries during or after the war and thus re-legalized same-sex sexual activity in those areas. BNA , 21 Empl. Thus, mental health professionals and researchers have long recognized that being homosexual poses no inherent obstacle to leading a happy, healthy, and productive life, and that the vast majority of gay and lesbian people function well in the full array of social institutions and interpersonal relationships. An overview of recent research in layman's language. Archived from the original on 14 April Many of these individuals and groups appeared to be embedded within the larger context of conservative religious political movements that have supported the stigmatization of homosexuality on political or religious grounds. At this age, they may not trust or ask for help from others, especially when their orientation is not accepted in society. Restrictions of expression. Archived from the original on 1 December With a population hostile towards LGBT people, the country has witnessed public demonstrations against homosexuals, public denunciations of presumed homosexual individuals, as well as violent intrusions in private homes. They also manifested higher internalized homophobia —essentially the degree of self-loathing linked to their homosexual desires. Elsevier Health Sciences. Get Unlimited! Am J Public Health. In Greek society the normal assumption would have been that the younger partner would, in a later phasde in life, go on to marry and reproduce. Retrieved 31 March This section needs additional citations for verification. Most health and mental health organizations do not view sexual orientation as a 'choice. Higher rates of family rejection were significantly associated with poorer health outcomes. A few countries continue to ban homosexual personnel outright. Books s Adam, Barry Retrieved 10 September To many, [ who? For example, tops also tend to be the more frequent insertive partner during oral intercourse. New York Times. January Learn how and when to remove this template message. Retrieved 22 June Archived from the original on 29 July Associated Press. Retrieved 21 December Although self-labels were not associated with unprotected intercourse, tops, who engaged in a greater proportion of insertive anal sex than other groups, were also less likely to identify as gay. S2CID Retrieved 27 June Biology Birth order Demographics Environment Homosexuality and psychology Kinsey scale Klein Grid Neuroscience Prenatal hormones Sexual inversion Sexual orientation change efforts Conversion therapy Sexual orientation identity Timeline of sexual orientation and medicine. The community in the country is exposed to additional risk of prejudice, social rejection and violence, with a greater impossibility of obtaining protection even from the police. Further information: Heterosexism and Homophobia. Main article: LGBT rights by country or territory. While the question of homosexuality in the military has been highly politicized in the United States, it is not necessarily so in many countries. The narrators of many of her poems speak of infatuations and love sometimes requited, sometimes not for various females, but descriptions of physical acts between women are few and subject to debate. Offenders can face the death penalty in Islamic countries and jurisdictions ruled by sharia. PMC Barash 19 November Although homosexual acts were decriminalized in some parts of the Western world , such as Poland in , Denmark in , Sweden in , and England and Wales in , it was not until the mids that the gay community first began to achieve limited civil rights in some developed countries. Delivering Culturally Competent Nursing Care. Gay bullying can be the verbal or physical abuse against a person who is perceived by the aggressor to be lesbian , gay , bisexual or transgender, including persons who are actually heterosexual or of non-specific or unknown sexual orientation.
Homosexuality is romantic attraction, sexual attraction , or sexual behavior between members of the same sex or gender. It "also refers to a person's sense of identity based on those attractions, related behaviors, and membership in a community of others who share those attractions. Along with bisexuality and heterosexuality , homosexuality is one of the three main categories of sexual orientation within the heterosexual—homosexual continuum. The most common adjectives for homosexual people are lesbian for females and gay for males , but the term gay also commonly refers to both homosexual females and males. The percentage of people who are gay or lesbian and the proportion of people who are in same-sex romantic relationships or have had same-sex sexual experiences are difficult for researchers to estimate reliably for a variety of reasons, including many gay and lesbian people not openly identifying as such due to prejudice or discrimination such as homophobia and heterosexism. Many gay and lesbian people are in committed same-sex relationships. These relationships are equivalent to heterosexual relationships in essential psychological respects. Krafft-Ebing's book was so popular among both laymen and doctors that the terms heterosexual and homosexual became the most widely accepted terms for sexual orientation. Many modern style guides in the U. Gay especially refers to male homosexuality,  but may be used in a broader sense to refer to all LGBT people. In the context of sexuality, lesbian refers only to female homosexuality. The word lesbian is derived from the name of the Greek island Lesbos , where the poet Sappho wrote largely about her emotional relationships with young women. Although early writers also used the adjective homosexual to refer to any single-sex context such as an all-girls school , today the term is used exclusively in reference to sexual attraction, activity, and orientation. The term homosocial is now used to describe single-sex contexts that are not specifically sexual. There is also a word referring to same-sex love, homophilia. Some synonyms for same-sex attraction or sexual activity include men who have sex with men or MSM used in the medical community when specifically discussing sexual activity and homoerotic referring to works of art. The range of acceptable use for these terms depends on the context and speaker. The American LGBT rights organization GLAAD advises the media to avoid using the term homosexual to describe gay people or same-sex relationships as the term is "frequently used by anti-gay extremists to denigrate gay people, couples and relationships". Some scholars argue that the term "homosexuality" is problematic when applied to ancient cultures since, for example, neither Greeks or Romans possessed any one word covering the same semantic range as the modern concept of "homosexuality". In cultures influenced by Abrahamic religions , the law and the church established sodomy as a transgression against divine law or a crime against nature. The condemnation of anal sex between males, however, predates Christian belief. Condemnation was frequent in ancient Greece; for instance, the idea of male anal sex being "unnatural" is described by a character of Plato 's,  though he had earlier written of the benefits of homosexual relationships. Many historical figures, including Socrates , Lord Byron , Edward II , and Hadrian ,  have had terms such as gay or bisexual applied to them. Some scholars have regarded uses of such modern terms on people from the past as an anachronistic introduction of a contemporary construction of sexuality that would have been foreign to their times. In social science, there has been a dispute between "essentialist" and "constructionist" views of homosexuality. The debate divides those who believe that terms such as "gay" and "straight" refer to objective, culturally invariant properties of persons from those who believe that the experiences they name are artifacts of unique cultural and social processes. The first record of a possible homosexual couple in history is commonly regarded as Khnumhotep and Niankhkhnum , an ancient Egyptian male couple, who lived around BCE. The pair are portrayed in a nose-kissing position, the most intimate pose in Egyptian art , surrounded by what appear to be their heirs. The anthropologists Stephen Murray and Will Roscoe reported that women in Lesotho engaged in socially sanctioned "long term, erotic relationships" called motsoalle. Evans-Pritchard also recorded that male Azande warriors in the northern Congo routinely took on young male lovers between the ages of twelve and twenty, who helped with household tasks and participated in intercrural sex with their older husbands. As is true of many other non-Western cultures, it is difficult to determine the extent to which Western notions of sexual orientation and gender identity apply to Pre-Columbian cultures. The Spanish conquerors were horrified to discover sodomy openly practiced among native peoples, and attempted to crush it out by subjecting the berdaches as the Spanish called them under their rule to severe penalties, including public execution , burning and being torn to pieces by dogs. As a result of the growing influence and power of the conquerors, many native cultures started condemning homosexual acts themselves. Among some of the indigenous peoples of the Americas in North America prior to European colonization, a relatively common form of same-sex sexuality centered around the figure of the Two-Spirit individual the term itself was coined only in Two-Spirit individuals were commonly shamans and were revered as having powers beyond those of ordinary shamans. Their sexual life was with the ordinary tribe members of the same sex. During the colonial times following the European invasion, homosexuality was prosecuted by the Inquisition, some times leading to death sentences on the charges of sodomy, and the practices became clandestine. Many homosexual individuals went into heterosexual marriages to keep appearances, and many turned to the clergy to escape public scrutiny of their lack of interest in the opposite sex. During the colonial period, both the French and the British criminalised same-sex sexual relations. Anal sex between males was a capital offence. In advocating for the law, the then-Minister of Justice, Pierre Trudeau , said: "The state has no place in the bedrooms of the nation. In , the Supreme Court of Canada held that sexual orientation is a protected personal characteristic under the equality clause of the Canadian Charter of Rights and Freedoms. Beginning in , the courts in Canada began to rule that excluding same-sex couples from marriage violated the equality clause of the Charter. In , the federal Parliament enacted the Civil Marriage Act , which legalised same-sex marriage across Canada. Canada has been referred to as the most gay-friendly country in the world, ranked first in the Gay Travel Index chart in , and among the five safest in Forbes magazine in Hardwick that a state could criminalize sodomy , but, in , overturned itself in Lawrence v. Texas and thereby legalized homosexual activity throughout the United States of America. It is only since the s that census forms and political conditions have facilitated the visibility and enumeration of same-sex relationships. Same-sex marriage in the United States expanded from one state in to all 50 states in , through various state court rulings, state legislation, direct popular votes referendums and initiatives , and federal court rulings. In East Asia , same-sex love has been referred to since the earliest recorded history.